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Reproduction

Reproduction gives rise to new generations by either asexual or sexual processes. It is crucial for sustaining and growing a population.
At a genetic level there are two basic types of cell:
Haploid cell cell with one set of chromosomes.
Diploid cell cell with two copies of each chromosome, one from each of the organism's parents.

Two important cellular events are involved in reproduction:
Mitosis asexual cell division that generates two genetically-identical daughter cells. Provides genetic stability in reproduction.
Meiosis sexual cell division that generates hapoid daughter cells (either gametes or spores) from diploid parent cells. Involves two successive nuclear divisions. Provides genetic variation in reproduction.

Sexual reproduction of multicellular organisms involves specialized cell types:
Sporophyte multicellular organism composed of diploid cells, producing spores through meiosis.
Spore (usually) haploid reproductive cell that grows into a gametophyte through mitosis.
Gametophyte multicellular organism composed of haploid cells, producing gametes (male, female or both) through mitosis.
Gamete haploid reproductive cell that fuses with another gamete through syngamy (fertilization) to form a zygote.
Zygote diploid cell formed by syngamy, that (usually) grows into a sporophyte through mitosis.

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